Table of Contents
- 1 What are the factors that influence drug effects?
- 2 What factors can influence the intensity of a drug on a user which are the 3 primary factors?
- 3 What are the principles of Drug Administration?
- 4 Is there a correlation between routes of administration of drugs and drug actions?
- 5 What is the mechanism of drug action?
- 6 How do we understand Ageing?
- 7 How is the effect of a drug determined?
- 8 How does the environment affect the action of drugs?
What are the factors that influence drug effects?
Factors influencing drug effects
- Type of drug.
- Quantity of drug used.
- Method of drug use.
- Time taken to consume.
- Gender, size and amount of muscle.
- Use of other psycho-active drugs.
- Mood or attitude.
What factors can influence the intensity of a drug on a user which are the 3 primary factors?
The effect of any drug on an individual is the result of three interacting factors: the drug itself. the individual user. the environment in which drug use occurs.
What are the factors that modify the duration and intensity of drug effect?
Duration of drug action depends on several factors: the absolute amount of drug given; the pharmaceutical preparation; the reversibility of drug action; the half-life of the drug; the slope of the concentration-response curve; the activity of metabolites, and the influence of disease on drug elimination.
How does age affect drug response?
In general, as we age, total body water and muscle mass decrease while percentage of body fat increases. These changes can lead to drugs having a longer duration of action and increased effect. Drugs that were effective may become compounded and overexceed their therapeutic threshhold causing increased side effects.
What are the principles of Drug Administration?
While there are several principles of drug administration, the five important ones are: the right patient, the right drug, the right dose, the right time and the right route of administration. Modes or routes of drug administration vary from the widely followed oral route to parenteral and inhalational routes.
Is there a correlation between routes of administration of drugs and drug actions?
The extent and time course of drug action can be markedly affected by the route of drug administration into the patient as well as the pattern of drug distribution within the patient.
How will the quantity of drug influence its effectivity?
A drug’s action is affected by the quantity of drug that reaches the receptor and the degree of attraction (affinity) between it and its receptor on the cell’s surface. Once bound to their receptor, drugs vary in their ability to produce an effect (intrinsic activity).
How do you modify drugs?
Drug action can be modified in a number of ways ; by altering its physical properties by adding to it other substances or other drugs, or by modifying its chemical structure.
What is the mechanism of drug action?
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect. A mechanism of action usually includes mention of the specific molecular targets to which the drug binds, such as an enzyme or receptor.
How do we understand Ageing?
In humans, ageing represents the accumulation of changes in a human being over time and can encompass physical, psychological, and social changes. Reaction time, for example, may slow with age, while memories and general knowledge typically increase.
How are drugs distributed?
Drug distribution is the disbursement of an unmetabolized drug as it moves through the body’s blood and tissues. The efficacy or toxicity of a drug depends on the distribution in specific tissues and in part explains the lack of correlation between plasma levels and the effects that are seen.
What are the 8 routes of drug administration?
Oral administration. This is the most frequently used route of drug administration and is the most convenient and economic.
How is the effect of a drug determined?
The effect that a drug has on a person is determined by many factors. The primary factors that influence drug effect are the type of drug and the quantity used. time taken to consume the drug (10 minutes vs 10 hours) tolerance (e.g. regular cannabis smoker vs naïve smoker) other psycho-active drugs in the person’s bloodstream (poly-drug use)
How does the environment affect the action of drugs?
Environmental Factors : extremes of weather or temperature can affect the action of drugs because heat and cold influence body functions. Heat relaxes the blood vessels and speeds up circulation so drugs act faster.
What are the physiological effects of alcohol and drugs?
In general, research on the unique physiological effects of alcohol and drugs in women is limited and sometimes inconclusive.
What can change the effectiveness of a drug?
Any disease can change the effectiveness of a drug without warning Mental state can be an important factor in the success or failure of drug therapy Negative emotional states and strong feelings such as jealousy, anger, or fear may have a noticeable effect on drug action