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What does stream velocity depend on?

What does stream velocity depend on?

A stream’s velocity depends on position in the stream channel, irregularities in the stream channel caused by resistant rock, and stream gradient. Friction slows water along channel edges. Friction is greater in wider, shallower streams and less in narrower, deeper streams.

How does velocity affect a stream?

Stream velocity, which increases as the volume of the water in the stream increases, determines the kinds of organisms that can live in the stream (some need fast-flowing areas; others need quiet pools). It also affects the amount of silt and sediment carried by the stream.

What factors affect stream flow?

Mechanisms that cause changes in streamflow

  • Runoff from rainfall and snowmelt.
  • Evaporation from soil and surface-water bodies.
  • Transpiration by vegetation.
  • Ground-water discharge from aquifers.
  • Ground-water recharge from surface-water bodies.
  • Sedimentation of lakes and wetlands.

What are the 3 factors that affect the rate of stream erosion and velocity?

So what determines how much material a stream can erode? A stream’s gradient, discharge, and load are three main factors that control what sediment a stream can carry.

Which stream would have the highest velocity?

Stream velocity is the speed of the water in the stream. Units are distance per time (e.g., meters per second or feet per second). Stream velocity is greatest in midstream near the surface and is slowest along the stream bed and banks due to friction.

What is the lowest stream velocity?

As the particle size gets larger, the minimum flow velocity needed to erode the particle decreases, with the lowest flow velocity being 30 centimetres per second to erode a 0.5 millimetre particle. To erode particles larger than 0.5 millimetres, the minimum flow velocity rises again.

What happens when stream velocity increases?

The increased velocity and the increased cross-sectional area mean that discharge increases. As discharge and velocity increase so do the stream’s competence and capacity. This can result in some aggradation or building up of sediments on the stream bed.

What is the minimum water velocity?

What is the minimum water velocity necessary to maintain movement of 0.1-centimeter-diameter particles in a stream? 5.0 cm/sec. Which particles can be transported by a stream moving at a velocity of 5 cm/sec? sand, silt, and clay only.

What is the relationship between stream velocity and erosion?

If the slope is too gentle and velocity is too slow to transport the sediments being supplied by weathering and erosion, the sediments will pile up. This increases the gradient which causes the water to flow faster which increases erosion and transport, which then reduces the gradient.

Which stream will flow the fastest?

Streams. If a stream is flowing along straight, the strongest, fastest flow will be in the center of the stream well above the bottom of the bed or channel but below the surface.

How do you calculate stream velocity?

Use the Stream Flow Field Sheet to calculate surface velocity. Divide distance (20 feet) by average velocity time to get average surface velocity in feet per second. Next, multiply this result by the velocity correction factor of 0.8 to get average corrected velocity.

What are the factors that affect the velocity of water in a stream?

Other factors that affect stream-water velocity are the size of sediments on the stream bed — because large particles tend to slow the flow more than small ones — and the discharge, or volume of water passing a point in a unit of time (e.g., m 3 /second).

How does stream discharge affect the quality of water?

Discharge Affects the Water Quality of a Stream in a Number of Ways: Concentrations of Pollutants and Natural Substances – In larger volumes of. faster-moving water, a pollutant will be more diluted and flushed out more quickly than an.

How is the flow of water related to the gradient?

Water flow in a stream is primarily related to the stream’s gradient, but it is also controlled by the geometry of the stream channel. As shown in Figure 13.3.1, water flow velocity is decreased by friction along the stream bed, so it is slowest at the bottom and edges and fastest near the surface and in the middle.

How are particles moved in a flowing stream?

They can be moved by (bouncing) and by (being pushed along by the force of the flow). Smaller particles may rest on the bottom some of the time, where they can be moved by saltation and traction, but they can also be held in suspension in the flowing water, especially at higher velocities.